Rheological Behaviour of Highly Filled Materials for Injection Moulding and Additive Manufacturing: Effect of Particle Material and Loading

Marko Bek, Joamin Gonzalez-Gutierrez, Christian Kukla, Klementina Pušnik Crešnar, Boris Maroh, Lidija Slemenik Perše

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Within this paper, we are dealing with a mixture of thermoplastic polymer that is filled with inorganic fillers at high concentrations up to 60 vol.%. A high number of particles in the compound can substantially change the rheological behaviour of the composite and can lead to problems during processing in the molten state. The rheological behaviour of highly filled materials is complex and influenced by many interrelated factors. In the present investigation, we considered four different spherical materials: steel, aluminium alloy, titanium alloy and glass. Particles with similar particle size distribution were mixed with a binder system at different filling grades (30–60 vol.%). We showed that the rheological behaviour of highly filled materials is significantly dependent on the chemical interactions between the filler and matrix material. Moreover, it was shown that the changes of the particle shape and size during processing lead to unexpected rheological behaviour of composite materials as it was observed in the composites filled with glass beads that broke at high contents during processing.
Original languageEnglish
Article number7993
Pages (from-to)1-23
Number of pages23
Journal Applied Sciences
Issue number22
Publication statusPublished - 2 Nov 2020


  • highly-filled polymers
  • Binder
  • Rheology
  • FTIR-spectroscopy
  • Highly filled materials
  • Binder-filler interaction
  • Polypropylene binder
  • Fused filament fabrication
  • XPS
  • Particle–particle interaction
  • Shear rheology

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