Characterization of Coke and Char for Optimized Use in Ironmaking Processes

Anrin Bhattacharyya

Research output: ThesisDoctoral Thesis


As the main energy material, coke quality has a great influence on the productivity of the modern blast furnace. In the same way, the properties of char from non-coking coal affect the optimal operation of more recently developed smelting reduction technologies like FINEX® and COREX® process. While descending either the blast furnace shaft or the melter-gasifier in smelting reduction facilities, coke and char as solid carbon carriers are exposed to a variety of thermal, chemical and mechanical stresses. In addition to that, modern ironmaking technologies are operated using injected fuel (pulverized coal, heavy oil or plastic) through the tuyeres. These circumstances impart significant changes in the process conditions and the effect of these changes on coke/char should be evaluated. The effect of unwanted elements like alkaline metals should also be taken in consideration. The process performance of coke is controlled by its inherent chemical, physical and lattice structure. These properties can be only evaluated by a thorough and systematic characterization. In addition, key parameters for efficient iron production are the factors affecting the liquid and gas permeability in the bosh zone. The aim of this work is to characterize the carbon carriers for optimized usage in the process. The reactivity and strength of cokes and chars have been evaluated under different process conditions. Several standard and novel characterization techniques have been used to explain their properties in the process and also to forecast their process behaviour. A new experimental simulation method has been devised to investigate the wetting behaviour in bosh zone. The combined results from this work provide a holistic know-how on coke properties and accordingly help us to utilize them efficiently in the process.
Translated title of the contributionCharakterisierung von Koks und Chars für optimierte Verwendung in Eisenherstellungsprozesse
Original languageEnglish
  • Hofbauer, Hermann, Assessor B (external), External person
  • Schenk, Johannes, Assessor A (internal)
Publication statusPublished - 2017

Bibliographical note

embargoed until null


  • coke
  • char
  • ironmaking
  • blast furnace
  • smelting reduction
  • characterization
  • quality forecast

Cite this